What does mosaic attenuation of the lungs mean?
Mosaic attenuation is an imaging pattern on computed tomography (CT) of the chest that is defined as variable lung attenuation that results in a heterogeneous appearance of the parenchyma.
What does lung attenuation mean?
A decrease in lung attenuation can be observed when this balance is disturbed by either an abnormal increase in the amount of air, an abnormal decrease in the intravascular blood volume with, as a result, a smaller calibre of the small vessels, and in case of loss of (interstitial) lung tissue.
What causes lung attenuation?
The increased lung attenuation pattern develops when the amount of air in the airspaces and in the lumen of the airways decreases (resulting from lung volume decrease or from partial or total filling of the airspaces) and when the soft tissue structures increase in size and/or amount, two phenomena that often occur …
How is small airway disease treated?
However, the structural and functional changes of small airway in AECOPD are not clear. Inhalation drugs are the main treatment for stable COPD , and inhaled corticosteroid（ICS）+long-acting beta2-agonist（LABA） are used to treat patients with severe and severe airflow limitation.
What does attenuation mean in CT scan?
Attenuation Defined. Attenuation is the measurement of energy absorbed and deflected as it passes through a medium. In simpler terms, attenuation is how much stopping power a material has on energy.
What is mosaic pattern?
A mosaic is a pattern or image made of small regular or irregular pieces of colored stone, glass or ceramic, held in place by plaster/mortar, and covering a surface. Mosaics are often used as floor and wall decoration, and were particularly popular in the Ancient Roman world.
What is small airway disease?
Small airway disease (SAD) is a recognized feature of COPD9,10,11 and has been characterized by pathology, imaging, and physiological studies. The small airways are <2 mm diameter, and there is a dramatic increase in small airway resistance in COPD patients compared to controls12.
What does high attenuation mean?
Areas of high attenuation (visually as opaque as bony structures) in an abnormality on CT scans can be an important clue to the correct diagnosis. The high attenuation is most often caused by calcification, but may also be due to iodine, barium, or radiopaque foreign bodies.
What is bronchiolitis obliterans?
Bronchiolitis obliterans is a rare chronic disease that worsens over time. This disease was first discovered in workers at a microwave popcorn plant who had inhaled the flavoring chemical diacetyl. Thus, the bronchiolitis obliterans became known as ‘popcorn lung’.
How do you treat air trapping in your lungs?
Your doctor may prescribe a type of medicine called a bronchodilator. It can open up your airways and help reverse the effects of hyperinflated lungs by allowing the trapped air to escape. Certain types of exercise might also help.
What does low attenuation on CT mean?
Attenuation is a feature of CT, and low attenuation means that a particular area is less intense than the surrounding. All of the malignant nodules confirmed by biopsy have low attenuation, with the exception of two which have a mixture of high and low attenuation.
What is meant by the term attenuation?
Attenuation is the loss of signal strength in networking cables or connections. This typically is measured in decibels (dB) or voltage and can occur due to a variety of factors. It may cause signals to become distorted or indiscernible.
What is parenchymal attenuation of liver?
The physiologic attenuation of liver parenchyma at unenhanced multidetector CT varies interindividually between 55 and 65 HU. Usually, the normal liver parenchyma appears homogeneous at multidetector CT, and its attenuation exceeds that of the spleen by about 10 HU.